Could thermodynamic fluctuations have led to the origins of life

first_imgBrogioli suggests that this drift represents an early form of evolution that took place before membranes began to enclose chemical systems; after this time, the membranes would have assumed responsibility for defining entities in competition with one another, allowing selection to take place. If thermodynamic fluctuations did play the role of selection in early life, it would overcome the problem of requiring replicating chemicals and the membranes that enclose them to emerge simultaneously.In his paper, Brogioli looks at replication from a kinetics perspective, in which the kinetic counterpart of the inheritance of mutations is the presence of multiple stationary states, i.e., different lines of mutations can be present simultaneously, and their offspring inherit mutations. He shows that chemical systems that can pass mutations on to offspring can be thought of as systems with multiple stationary states, thus having the property of chemical marginal stability. These systems differ from a simple “self-catalytic” system (e.g., a purely chemical system) that merely produces offspring without transmitting mutations; the kinetic counterpart would be initial states that all lead to only one stationary state. As an analogy of a marginally stable system, Brogioli considers the mechanical example of a marble on a flat surface, where any point on the surface is a stationary point. If the marble is disturbed, it reaches a different stationary point rather than returning to its original position, since there is no restoring force. Likewise, spontaneous concentration fluctuations can enable a chemical system to inherit a variety of mutations from its parent system, and any of these mutations can be considered stable.Brogioli discovered the drift motion by mathematically studying the thermodynamic fluctuations over time. He found that, if two replicases R1 and R2 are present, the most efficient replicase, say R2, begins increasing in number and becomes dominant. In volumes with a higher concentration of R2, more replications will occur, and a larger fraction of them will be R2. Afterward, an even more efficient replicase can arise due to random mutations, and its concentration will increase, and so on.At the moment, the drift has been confirmed only by numerical calculations, and must be regarded as still theoretical. Brogioli notes that most chemical systems that have a replicase do not possess chemical marginal stability, and therefore are not affected by thermodynamic fluctuations. However, his study shows that the existence of a chemical system that is marginally stable and can undergo spontaneous evolution is possible. Investigating this theory further could have extremely important revelations. The demonstration of a marginally stable chemical system in the lab would not only be the first experiment in which a chemical system undergoes spontaneous evolution, but also the first in vitro model of a chemical reaction that leads to life.”Currently, no replicase that can self-sustain its replication has been created, but replication of RNA polymers can be obtained by ligation of short oligonucleotides,” Brogioli said. “This is a way [to find a chemical system could have marginal stability]. Another possibility is to create a more abstract system, in which replication is accomplished by an enzyme, and the activity of the enzyme is affected by the presence of one of the replicated polymers. Obviously, this is only a proof of principle of marginal stability and evolutionary drift, but not a realistic reproduction of the origin of life. The most interesting possibility is to consider the reactions proposed by the metabolism-first theories. In those theories, no replicating polymer was involved in abiogenesis, but only small molecules constituting some kind of metabolic network. The target is to find a very simple reaction that can be marginally stable.” (Left) Self-catalysis vs. (right) replication with inheritance in terms of kinetics: In the case of self-catalysis, all the initial states eventually lead to the same stationary state. In the case of replication with inheritance, the initial states lead to different stationary states on the stationary-state curve. The blue arrows show that the motion along the stationary-state curve is a drift pointing toward the increase of the most active replicase, R2. Image copyright: Doriano Brogioli. ©2010 The American Physical Society. In the field of abiogenesis, scientists are currently investigating several ways in which life could have arisen from non-living matter. Generally, any theory of abiogenesis should account for two important aspects of life: replication (the ability to transmit mutations to offspring) and metabolism (the chemical reactions required for vital activities such as breaking down food). Although these two characteristics help to provide a working definition of life, more recently scientists have emphasized the importance of another key feature required for Darwinian evolution: selection, or the replication of mutations that provide an evolutionary advantage. More information: Doriano Brogioli. “Marginally Stable Chemical Systems as Precursors of Life.” Physical Review Letters 105, 058102 (2010). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett105.058102 What came first in the origin of life? A study contradicts the ‘metabolism first’ hypothesis Citation: Could thermodynamic fluctuations have led to the origins of life? (2010, August 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Explore further “The basic problem of abiogenesis is finding the first living entity that generated from non-living matter,” Doriano Brogioli, a physicist from the University of Milan-Bicocca, told “But what is the definition of life: is it replication, or metabolism, or simply self-catalysis? I think that it is not simply a matter of definition: what is necessary is ‘evolution,’ even if the entity that undergoes (or performs) evolution is not a classical living entity. After evolution starts, it can reach whatever complex structures: from a cell, evolution creates trees, whales, birds, ants, and all the prodigious current living world.”Purely chemical systems may possess the ability to replicate and metabolize, but scientists have found that chemical systems by themselves do not undergo selection; more active molecules are not replicated more than others, and useful individual mutations are not inherited by the offspring. Therefore, researchers have suggested that some kind of physical process is likely required to introduce competition among chemical systems and generate the selective pressure required for evolution. “Three features are needed for evolution: inheritance, mutation and selection,” Brogioli said. “Single molecules can replicate other molecules, including other copies of themselves, and can undergo mutations. But in a solution with replicases, each replicase replicates whatever it finds, including non-active molecules or less active replicases. Selection is not active. The reason is that (traditional) chemistry favors selfish molecules: the molecule that is more able to be replicated increases its concentration. In order for selection to take place, there must be a physical process. Confination due to membranes is the current way used by living organisms. But it is hard to believe that a complex structure like a cell can form spontaneously, since the replicating polymers must form together with the membranes themselves. This problem is found in all the theories of abiogenesis, including the RNA-world and the metabolism-first theories.”Brogioli has taken a unique approach to satisfying the requirement for selection by proposing that the answer may lie in thermodynamic fluctuations. These fluctuations, which are changes in the number of molecules in a given volume due to thermal motions, may allow selection to become effective, leading to the increase in molecules having an evolutionary advantage. By investigating some chemical systems that possess a feature that he calls “chemical marginal stability,” Brogioli has shown that thermodynamic fluctuations induce not only a random walk, but a drift directed toward increasing replication efficiency. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Have we reached peak travel

first_img © 2010 Ridesharing can be made into more attractive cost-saver, study shows Explore further The study’s authors, Lee Schipper of the University of California, Berkeley, and Stanford University and Adam Millard-Ball, a doctoral candidate at Stanford University, analyzed travel trends from the US, the UK, Canada, Sweden, France, Germany, Japan, and Australia from 1970 through 2008. For each country, they plotted the distance traveled per capita per year by car, pickup truck, bus, plane, train, light rail, streetcar, and subway, and compared it to the country’s gross domestic product per capita.They found a correlation between rising prosperity and passenger travel from 1970 to 2003, after which passenger travel stopped growing (while GDP per capita continued to rise). At this peak travel period, GDP per capita was $37,000 in the US and between $25,000 and $30,000 in the other seven countries. During the past few years, motorized travel in the US has plateaued at around 26,000 km/year per person, 10,000 km/year per person in Japan, and between 13,000 and 17,000 km/year per person in the other six countries. (See above graph.)“Since 2003, motorized travel demand has leveled out or even declined in most of the countries studied, and travel in private vehicles has declined,” the authors wrote in their study. “Car ownership has continued to rise, but these cars are being driven less.”The researchers speculated that several factors have contributed to the apparent peak in passenger travel. One factor is saturation in vehicle ownership: in the US, there are about 700 cars per 1,000 people (which is more cars than licensed drivers), and about 500 cars per 1,000 people in most of the other countries. Basically, everyone who wants to drive, drives. Since 2007, car ownership in the US has declined due to the recession. Another limiting factor is time: people already spend an average of 1.1 hours per day traveling, and speed limits for the large part remain fixed. Other factors include high gas prices and an aging population that doesn’t commute.The researchers think that the biggest factor of the travel plateau may be traffic congestion. As Schipper said in an interview with Miller-McCune, “My basic thesis is, ‘There ain’t room on the road.’ You can’t move in Jakarta or Bangkok or any large city in Latin America or in any city in the wealthy part of China. I think Manila takes the prize. Yes, fuel economy is really important, and yes, hybrid cars will help. But even a car that generates no CO2 still generates a traffic problem. Sadly, what is going to restrain car use the most is that you can’t move.”Perhaps the biggest advantage of peak travel is that, if passenger travel continues to stay the same while vehicles become more fuel-efficient, then reducing transportation emissions may not be as daunting as previously thought. Today, the average American car uses a third less fuel per mile than in 1973, despite consumer demand for larger vehicles.Although the researchers note that their results are not conclusive and further research is needed, they conclude that the assumption that travel demand will continue to rise should be treated with caution. ( — Since the 1970s, passenger travel by vehicles and airplanes has grown rapidly in industrialized countries, and the International Energy Agency has predicted steady, though slower, travel growth until 2030 and beyond. However, a new study of eight industrialized countries has shown that passenger travel seems to have peaked in the early 2000s, just before the recent rise in fuel prices. The results suggest that demand for travel has reached a saturation point, which could mean that future projections of carbon dioxide emissions and fuel demand could be lower than previously thought. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. This graph shows the total motorized passenger travel for eight countries, plotted against each country’s per capita GDP. Since the early 2000s, passenger travel has plateaued. Image credit: Adam Millard-Ball and Lee Schipper. More information: Adam Millard-Ball and Lee Schipper. “Are We Reaching Peak Travel? Trends in Passenger Transport in Eight Industrialized Countries.” Transport Reviews. DOI: 10.1080/01441647.2010.518291. Early version available here.via: Miller-McCune and TreeHugger Citation: Have we reached peak travel? (2011, January 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from read more

Researchers build fully mechanical phonon laser

first_img Explore further More information: Phonon Lasing in an Electromechanical Resonator, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 127202 (2013) DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.127202AbstractAn electromechanical resonator harboring an atomlike spectrum of discrete mechanical vibrations, namely, phonon modes, has been developed. A purely mechanical three-mode system becomes available in the electromechanical atom in which the energy difference of the two higher modes is resonant with a long-lived lower mode. Our measurements reveal that even an incoherent input into the higher mode results in coherent emission in the lower mode that exhibits all the hallmarks of phonon lasing in a process that is reminiscent of Brillouin lasing. Journal information: Physical Review Letters Citation: Researchers build fully mechanical phonon laser (2013, March 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Quantum leap for phonon lasers The world has grown accustomed to lasers, they’re a part of modern life, from DVD players to cash registers at the grocery store—lasers are everywhere. One thing they all have in common, is that they are based on photon emissions. There are other kinds of similar devices, of course, such as masers, which are based on microwave radiation, but they are not as well known. More lately, research has focused on lasers based on sound, which would emit phonons (lattice vibrations) instead of photons, an idea that’s been thrown around for several years, but hasn’t gotten much traction because the uses for such a laser are still unclear.Back in 2010 a team of researchers succeeded in building a phonon laser (or phaser, as some have taken to calling it) but it relied on the use of an optical laser. In this new effort, the research team has built a phonon laser that is purely mechanical, which the team says, should make it easier to implement in other systems should a reason for doing so be found.Photon lasers work by exciting electrons in a crystal or gas, then allowing them to revert to a more relaxed state. When they do so, a certain wavelength of light is released which is focused using mirrors.To build their phonon laser, the team followed the same basic design—a mechanical oscillator excites some amount of phonons, which are then allowed to revert back to a relaxed state. But the energy is still in the system—it causes the device to vibrate at a desired frequency within a very narrow wavelength, making it a lasing device. The entire laser has been etched onto a single integrated circuit.While researchers still aren’t clear to what purpose such a laser might be put, especially in light of the fact that phonons require a transmission medium to work, that hasn’t stopped them from proceeding. When the photon laser was first developed, no one knew what to do with it either. The researchers suggest that phonon lasers might be used to build a tiny clock, or as part of ultrasound machines or even as a very highly accurate measuring device.center_img ( —Researchers working at Japan’s NTT Basic Research Laboratories have successfully built an all mechanical phonon laser. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes how they built a phonon laser without using any optical parts by basing it on a traditional optical laser design. (Left) Three-level scheme for a conventional optical laser. (Right) Three-level scheme of the phonon laser reported by Mahboob et al. Credit: APS/José Tito Mendonça; Image on homepage and inset: I. Mahboob/NTT Basic Research Laboratories © 2013 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Researchers attempt to uncover the origins of waters unusual properties

first_imgThe proposed pressure-temperature (P-T) phase diagram shows that, below a critical point, water is either in the high-density structure or in the low-density structure. However, above the critical point in a funnel-like region, water is constantly fluctuating between these two structures, and these structural fluctuations are what give rise to many of water’s anomalous properties. Credit: Nilsson and Pettersson. Nature Communications. More information: Anders Nilsson and Lars G.M. Pettersson. “The structural origin of anomalous properties of liquid water.” Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9998 Explore further Outside of the funnel-like region, water stops behaving anomalously and begins behaving more like other liquids. In these regions, water’s structure is homogeneous, existing as only the low-density structure below the funnel-like region and only the high-density structure above the funnel-like region. While the new paper combines many years of data into one cohesive picture, many questions still remain. One unanswered question, for instance, is why does water’s anomalous region occur at the same temperatures and pressures that sustain life? It seems likely that water’s anomalous region served to place constraints on the conditions required for life to exist. A better understanding of this overlap could have implications for understanding life on a fundamental level.Many other questions also require further investigation. The researchers explain that their proposed interpretation is a very simple picture, and it does not tell the exact degree of heterogeneity in water in the anomalous region, nor does it describe the nature of the boundaries between the spatially separated fluctuating regions. Another area of investigation that has challenged researchers is the so-called “no-man’s land” region, which refers to the possibility of liquid water at temperatures below 232 K (-42 °C and -42 °F) but above 150 K (-123 °C, -189 °F). It’s extremely challenging to cool liquid water to these cold temperatures quickly enough so that it can be probed, even for a moment, before it turns to solid ice. In 2014, scientists successfully cooled liquid water to 5 K below no-man’s land and measured its structure using an X-ray laser—the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Experiments like these are needed to answer the question of whether water can exist in a liquid state in this region, which would help complete the P-T phase diagram.In the future, the researchers plan to investigate how water’s structural fluctuations contribute to other intriguing phenomena.”We will focus on using X-ray lasers to probe the supercooled regime and search for the liquid-liquid transition and second critical point,” Nilsson said. “We are also developing probe dynamics using the femtosecond time resolution of the X-ray lasers, allowing eventually to probe the dynamics of these structural fluctuations. There might be some intricate coupling of time and space on various length and time scales that are still unknown. “We hope that others will also bring other techniques involving time resolved two-dimensional IR spectroscopy, NMR and neutron scattering to further investigate water along these lines. Also further refinement of theoretical approaches to both calculate experimental observables but also to simulate water.” Evidence for solid-liquid critical points of water in carbon nanotubes Journal information: Nature Communications (—In many ways, water behaves very differently than other liquids do, and with important consequences: It’s widely thought that water’s unusual properties were essential for the development of life on Earth. One prime example is the fact that ice floats. Unlike other substances, frozen water is less dense than liquid water, and this anomaly allows fish and other aquatic lifeforms to survive in the water under a frozen layer of protective ice during cold periods. Water also has a high heat capacity, meaning it can absorb and release a large amount of heat while undergoing very little change in temperature. This property helps many living organisms maintain a relatively stable body temperature, and it also provides a pleasant climate in Europe due to the warm Gulf Stream current. © 2016 Citation: Researchers attempt to uncover the origins of water’s unusual properties (2016, January 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from It’s widely known that water’s anomalous properties are related to its hydrogen bonds, which cause liquid water to arrange itself in a highly ordered way because of the attraction between the hydrogen atoms in one water molecule and the oxygen atoms in adjacent molecules. However, researchers do not completely understand how water’s unique hydrogen-bonded structure leads to its anomalous properties. In a review paper published in Nature Communications, physicists Anders Nilsson and Lars G.M. Pettersson from Stockholm University have pulled together the results from dozens of papers published over the past several years that have investigated water’s molecular structure, often with the help of cutting-edge experimental tools and simulations. In their interpretation of the data, the researchers have proposed a picture of water in which its unique properties arise from its heterogeneous structure.The researchers propose that, in the pressure (P) and temperature (T) region where water exhibits its anomalous behaviors (the funnel-like region in the P-T phase diagram above), water coexists in two different types of structures: a highly ordered, low-density structure with strong hydrogen bonds, and a somewhat smashed, high-density structure with distorted hydrogen bonds. The origins of water’s anomalous properties arise because these two types of structures are constantly fluctuating between one another in this heterogeneous phase, resulting in many small spatially separated regions of different structures.”It is the fluctuations between high-density liquid and low-density liquid that give rise to the anomalous properties,” Nilsson told water’s large heat capacity, for instance. As Nilsson explained, heat capacity is related to entropy fluctuations, and entropy is in turn related to the number of possible ways the available energy can be distributed in the system. Fluctuations between the low- and high-density local structures increase the magnitude of the entropy fluctuations and, consequently, the heat capacity. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

New study takes a different approach to showing human activity causing earthquakes

first_img © 2017 Journal information: Science Advances Fracking, extracting natural gas using hydraulic fracturing, and other techniques, have been in the news a lot of late. On the one hand, it has been credited with helping the U.S. become less dependent on foreign oil. But on the other hand, more studies are finding that in addition to harming the environment, the practice appears to be causing small earthquakes. It should be noted that it is not the actual fracking that is believed to cause earthquakes, it is the practice of forcing the dirty water left over from the process back into the ground afterwards that appears to cause the problems—it loosens material around underground faults.There is little doubt that more earthquakes have been occurring in parts of the U.S. since fracking began, but less certain is whether fracking is the cause. The strongest proof to date has been the location of the upswing in small earthquakes around areas where fracking is conducted. In this new effort, the researchers sought to take a more scientific approach to settling the matter—they used the same technology that the oil companies use to find underground deposits of oil and gas—high-resolution seismic reflection imaging. But instead of looking for oil or gas, the researchers looked for deformed faults beneath the ground in the Forth Worth basin. They compared seismic readings in Texas with those from sites in a northern part of Mississippi with a history of small quakes going back to the 1800s, well before fracking began.The researchers report that their readings showed that the most recent natural fault activity beneath the Fort Worth basin was approximately 70 million years ago. That meant that the team was unable to find any natural cause for the recent quakes, leaving fracking as the only possible culprit. Explore further Citation: New study takes a different approach to showing human activity causing earthquakes in Texas (2017, November 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from More information: Maria Beatrice Magnani et al. Discriminating between natural versus induced seismicity from long-term deformation history of intraplate faults, Science Advances (2017). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701593AbstractTo assess whether recent seismicity is induced by human activity or is of natural origin, we analyze fault displacements on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles for two regions in the central United States (CUS): the Fort Worth Basin (FWB) of Texas and the northern Mississippi embayment (NME). Since 2009, earthquake activity in the CUS has increased markedly, and numerous publications suggest that this increase is primarily due to induced earthquakes caused by deep-well injection of wastewater, both flowback water from hydrofracturing operations and produced water accompanying hydrocarbon production. Alternatively, some argue that these earthquakes are natural and that the seismicity increase is a normal variation that occurs over millions of years. Our analysis shows that within the NME, faults deform both Quaternary alluvium and underlying sediments dating from Paleozoic through Tertiary, with displacement increasing with geologic unit age, documenting a long history of natural activity. In the FWB, a region of ongoing wastewater injection, basement faults show deformation of the Proterozoic and Paleozoic units, but little or no deformation of younger strata. Specifically, vertical displacements in the post-Pennsylvanian formations, if any, are below the resolution (~15 m) of the seismic data, far less than expected had these faults accumulated deformation over millions of years. Our results support the assertion that recent FWB earthquakes are of induced origin; this conclusion is entirely independent of analyses correlating seismicity and wastewater injection practices. To our knowledge, this is the first study to discriminate natural and induced seismicity using classical structural geology analysis techniques.center_img Pennsylvania correlates natural gas fracking with quakes Post-2008 seismicity rate change in the central United States. Since 2009, seismicity has occurred both in areas that were seismically active before 2008 (for example, the Mississippi embayment) and in regions with no pre-2008 historical or instrumental seismicity (for example, the Fort Worth Basin). Credit: Magnani et al., Sci. Adv. 2017;3: e1701593 (—A team of researchers with Southern Methodist University in Texas and the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazard Program in Virginia has taken a new approach to studying the increase of earthquakes in Texas. In their paper published on the open access site Science Advances, the group suggests their findings indicate that the wastewater injection process is the only possible cause of a recent uptick in earthquakes around the Fort Worth area. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Violence Returns To Hong Kong As Police Fire T

first_imgViolence Returns To Hong Kong As Police Fire Tear Gas And… by NPR News Gabriela Saldivia 8.24.19 4:02pm After a stretch of relative peace in Hong Kong, a standoff between protesters and riot police became violent again on Saturday.Police fired tear gas after pro-democracy demonstrators blocked roads with barricades made of bamboo sticks and hurled bricks, in the district of Kwun Tong.In a statement, police said protesters paralyzed traffic and affected emergency services in the area near a police station.Protesters tore down and dismantled “smart lampposts” out of a fear that they contain high-tech cameras and facial recognition software used for surveillance by authorities in China.Some used an electric saw, attempting to slice through the bottom of a lamppost, while others tied a rope around it to successfully bring it crashing to the ground, The Associated Press reported.The government in Hong Kong insists that the lampposts only collect data on weather, air quality and traffic, according to the AP. There are plans to install about 400 of these smart lampposts over a three-year period, according to a government report. The latest skirmish marked the 12th straight weekend of demonstrations in Hong Kong and ended nearly two weeks of relative calm, according to the AP.Just a day before, thousands of Hong Kongers held hands and formed human chains, in a peaceful bid to gain support from the international community, NPR’s Anthony Kuhn reported.On Saturday, Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam expressed a desire to open a dialogue on Facebook.”I don’t expect that dialogue will be able to easily untangle this knot, stop the demonstrations or provide a solution to the problem,” Lam wrote. “But continuing to fight is not a way out.””After more than two months, everyone is tired. Can we sit down and talk about it?” she wrote.Just a few hours later, protests in Kwun Tong turned violent, according to The New York Times.The protests in Hong Kong originally began in June over a bill that would have allowed some extraditions of Hong Kong residents to mainland China. The bill sparked a backlash among those who saw it as a violation of the “one country, two systems” agreement that was formed in 1997 when Hong Kong was returned to China from BritainThe bill has since been shelved, but it’s not formally dead. Hong Kong’s government indefinitely suspended the legislation in June but hasn’t withdrawn it entirely. The demands from the movement have since expanded and now include calls to investigate excessive police violence during the demonstrations and a more transparent and open government.Also on Saturday, Simon Cheng, a worker from the British Consulate in Hong Kong, was released after being detained in mainland China. Cheng disappeared on a business trip in mainland China two weeks ago amid the rising tensions between Beijing and London.It wasn’t immediately clear whether Cheng’s detention had anything to do with Britain’s support of the pro-democracy protests, NPR’s Scott Neuman reported.Copyright 2019 NPR. To see more, visit NPR. Kin Cheunglast_img read more

Connecting poles

first_imgThe Polish Institute in New Delhi is presenting the 2nd edition of the KINOTEKA Polish Film Festival with the aim of bringing acclaimed Polish movies to Indian audiences. The festval begins from 19 November to 12 December in Delhi and Mumbai. The Delhi edition will be hosted at the India Habitat Centre and the Alliance Française de Delhi. It celebrates the best of Polish cinema, including award-winning films from Poland’s great auteur and cutting edge, exciting work from a new generation of Polish film-making talent. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’‘The Polish Institute is bringing new Polish films from the years 2012-2014 including the Oscar candidate from Poland Ida by Pawel Pawlikowski. We are also celebrating KrzysztofKieslowski’s Decalogue as this year marks the 25th anniversary of the series. ‘The great film maker’s retrospective will be shown at IFFI Goa as well,’ says Anna Tryc-Bromley, Director, Polish Institute, New Delhi.The Festival will kick off in Mumbai on 19 November and draw to a close in Delhi on 12 December. The two-city Festival is also split into two parts: the first, called Polish Cinema Now is focused on contemporary Polish cinema, and features some of the most recent film successes, including Andrzej Jakimowski’s highly-acclaimed Imagine, which opens the Delhi leg of Kinoteka in the presence of the director himself on 2 December, and that of his wife Ewa Jakimowska who worked on the film’s production design. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixOther films in this section are also highly-rated such as Ida, which has been nominated for next year’s Oscars in the Best Foreign Language Film category . The second part of the Festival is a tribute to arguably Poland’s best known film director – Krzysztof Kieslowski. The Decalogue series, and on the occasion the first four episodes from it will be screened  as part of a Krzysztof Kieslowski Retrospective.Where: India Habitat Centre and Alliance Française de Delhi When : 19 November – 12 Decemberlast_img read more

Craft for the cause

first_imgEmpowerment, a socio-cultural not for profit NGO, aims to preserve art and cultural heritage of India through promotion and revival of arts and crafts presented Colours of Himalayas a showcasing of handmade products of tribal women from flood affected area of Uttarakhand.The chief guest of the event Santosh Kumar Gangwar  Minister of State for Ministry of Textiles (IC)  inaugurated the  exhibition December 12 at Artizen Art Gallery in New Delhi. On display were shawls, stoles, carpets, bamboo products, copper ware products, paintings and photographs depicting Uttarakhand and its crafts. Empowerment also hosted a ramp show where models wearing the traditional outfit of Uttarakhand showcased the dresses. The exhibition remained open till December 14. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’All proceeds from the resulting sales of the products will directly go to these women artisans and weavers, motivating and inspiring them to return to normal stream and move towards sustainable development. The exhibition was curated by Sonika Agrawal and Kumar Vikas Saxena, who have closely watched these women going from being totally helpless and dejected to the spirit of wanting to move ahead and create a better living for themselves and their families. They said, “The immersion of the tribal women in crafts have given them a purpose of life and renewed their strength and courage, providing them with hope for the future.”  Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixEmpowerment spreads its message and works through capacity building of women and youth. In June 2013, a cloudburst on the North Indian state of Uttarakhand caused devastating floods and landslides becoming the country’s worst natural disaster. Though relief poured in from various sectors, a sustained effort is required so that people are rehabilitated and empowered through capacity building and work towards sustenance.last_img read more

Court again refuses to allow Daburs Burman to go abroad

first_imgDabur promoter Pradip Burman, whose name has cropped up in the blackmoney list, was on Thursday once again stopped from going abroad by a Delhi court which said there was an apprehension that he could flee.Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate (ACMM) Devendra Kumar Sharma, rejected Burman’s application saying no fresh ground is made out after the dismissal of his earlier plea on January 20 and the plea was without any merit.This was the second time in three days that Burman’s plea to go abroad has been rejected by the court. Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJIBurman, who had earlier sought permission to travel to Hong Kong to attend his elder brother’s death anniversary, had moved another plea yesterday choosing a new ground that he wanted to attend the 70th birthday of his brother’s wife.During the arguments on Thursday, Income Tax (IT) Department’s standing counsel Brijesh Garg opposed the plea saying India does not have double taxation agreement with Hong Kong, and if the accused does not return, it would be difficult to bring him back.“Moreover, there is apprehension on behalf of the complainant (IT department) that the accused may flee from the jurisdiction of the court to such a jurisdiction from where he cannot be brought back.“This apprehension of the complainant finds force as there is no treaty between India and Hong Kong even for the purposes of taxation and in this regard, document is placed on record on behalf of the complainant,” the court said.last_img read more

Construction of proposed bridge over River Ajay to start soon

first_imgKolkata: The construction of the bridge over river Ajay connecting Kenduli in Birbhum and Shibpur in West Burdwan to initiate soon. According to a senior officer of the state Public Works Department, necessary tasks that is required for commencement of the construction of the bridge has been completed and the agency that will carry out the work takes about three to four months to complete the ground work before initiating the work. Hence, the work is expected to start soon. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsTwo bridges will be constructed across river Ajay. Both the bridges will be of three lanes. One will come up just beside an existing one, which is in a poor condition, connecting Moregram and Panagarh in West Burdwan. The bridge is a part of the National Highway 60. The construction work of the new one has already started and it will come up at a project cost of Rs 163 crore. The other bridge is coming up to connect Kenduli in Birbhum at one end with Shibpur in West Midnapore on the other side of river Ajay. The bridge is coming up at a cost of Rs 130 crore. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedOnce the construction of the bridge is completed, one will need to travel 30 km less to reach Durgapur from Duprajpur. The people of the area will be immensely benefitted and the economy of the place will witness a boom. It may be mentioned that the place is famous for Jaidev Kenduli Mela where lakhs of people visit every year. Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee inaugurates Jaidev Kenduli Mela every year. People visiting the Mela every year will also be benefitted with the construction of the bridge as it would take lesser time for them to reach the Mela premises. After coming to power, the Mamata Banerjee government has taken up several projects to develop the infrastructure to ensure better road connectivity in the state and the construction of the bridge will be helpful to thousands of people as they no more have to travel extra kilometres to reach Durgapur Expressway. In the absence of the bridge, one from Dubrajpur needs to travel through National Highway 2B to reach Durgapur. But with the construction, one can take a turn from Jaidev More and will straightway reach Durgapur Expressway after crossing the bridge. Mamata Banerjee government has taken up several such projects and the state has witnessed a massive development in road connectivity in the past six and a half years.last_img read more

Tasting times

first_imgThe much awaited, Palate Fest is back in the capital with its spring foodfiesta – NDMC Palate Mini 2015. This festival brings the experience of dining, entertainment, cooking classes and workshops and food market alive for the Delhi audiences. The three day gastronomic affair is scheduled for March 13, 14 and 15 at Nehru Park.Owing its inception to the huge success of the annual New Delhi Palate Festival 2014 – the biggest food festival in India – and to its popular encoring demand, NDMC Palate Mini 2015 is an attempt at pacifying the capital’s hunger until the next annual Palate Fest. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’With 15 of Delhi’s top restaurants, 30 Gourmet Market vendors and live entertainment, NDMC Palate Mini 2015 makes a great day out in the park to unwind with family or friends. “NDMC is constantly looking to bring Delhi at par with world-class cities in terms of public amenities. This festival gives everyone- families, tourists, veterans, children – a chance to unwind and enjoy a day out in the park,” added Jalaj Srivastava, Chairperson NDMC.The festival showcases at least 15 cafes and has tied-up with popular names in the culinary space like The Leela Palace Delhi, Indigo Deli, Royal China, Smokey’s, Hyderabad Café, Punjab Grill Café, Sakae Sushi, Zambhar Coastal Café, Alaturka, Fat Lulu’s, FIO, Wok In The Clouds, Elma’s Kitchen.last_img read more

Tourism dept to renovate upgrade lodges to 3star properties

first_imgKolkata: The state Tourism department will soon commence a large-scale renovation work of around 1,000 rooms of its lodging properties across the state and upgrade them to three star categories.State Tourism minister Goutam Deb on Wednesday said the work for upgrade will start in July and work will be carried out in phases and on a rotational basis to avoid inconvenience of tourists during this time phase.”Work is expected to be completed by September before the Puja season. There will not be a complete shutdown of these lodging facilities at the time of work, Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsbut some of the facilities will remain non-functional during this period. The first phase of work will include 25 properties.” Deb said.It may be mentioned that from July to September, when renovation work will be undergoing, bookings for some lodges have to be doneoffline.The online booking will be available partially and the department will offer discount to attract tourists.In most tourist destinations, this three-month period is a lean period owing to the monsoon. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe department has plans of installing kiosks in the lobbies of the lodging facilities, while handicrafts from the Micro Small and Medium enterprises (MSME) will be on display for sale including processed food items depending on the demographical location of the lodges.”In forest areas or some hill destinations, the tourists have to remain indoor as they hardly have activities after a certain point of time. We will be promoting cultural programmes highlighting the folk culture to entertain the tourists in these lodges,” a senior official said.The minister further added that Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee had handed over the responsibility to undertake development work of the Pathasathi shelters.A senior Tourism department official maintained that there may be a slight rise in the tariff after the rooms are refurbished but the facilities the tourists will be getting will be the best.last_img read more

City streets to see coolheaded bikers thanks to special helmet from HIDCO

first_imgKolkata: Motorcycle riders in the city now have reason to rejoice as Housing Infrastructure Development Corporation (HIDCO) is introducing a special type of helmet which will keep the rider’s head cool, as part of the Safe Drive Save Life programme.The helmet, the first of its kind in the country, has been manufactured by a Bengaluru-based company. The fully covered lightweight helmet has a temperature control system which is run by a battery. The batteries will have to be charged for eight hours in order to operate for a week. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedIt may be recalled that another firm had previously installed fans inside helmets to keep them cool but the solution did not last long after the fans developed snag. The firm had approached HIDCO and the helmet was given a trial for three months. Welcoming the move, Subrata Boral, a long-distance biker, said it will be a very effective solution for those who cover long distances on motorcycles, particularly in the sweltering summer heat. “If it cools the rider’s head in summer then it will be used on a large scale,” he said. The firm will give some helmets to HIDCO which will be distributed among bikers to get a proper feedback. Bikers said very few riders use proper helmets, which are essential for safe riding. They feel that more awareness is required about the utility of proper helmets.last_img read more

20 Coordination Committee members held for staging agitation

first_imgKolkata: Members of the State Coordination Committee were arrested from in front of the state Secretariat Nabanna, for staging an agitation. There were around 20 persons, including a woman, who had gathered all of a sudden in front of Nabanna and started shouting slogans on various demands. Taking immediate step, the police intervened and asked them not to agitate outside the state Secretariat. They were finally arrested to ensure normalcy in the area. It may be mentioned that the area in and around Nabanna is a high-security zone. So, the police always maintain a vigil in the area to ensure normalcy.last_img

Yoga and selfrealization Exploring the connect

first_imgAs part of Amity Humans Quarter celebrations, Amity Institute of Travel and Tourism organized a guest lecture of Nupur Tewari, Ambassador of Tourism in Kyushu region of Japan, at University campus.Addressing the gathering, Nupur Tewari, Yoga Trainer, and Healer, said that yoga promotes the belief that humans are the best creation of the universe with a power to achieve everything. She shared that yoga is culture, philosophy, humanity and most importantly, beyond religion. Yoga is not only about asanas but about ‘self-realization’. It helps a person realize his or her true potential by achieving positive energy. Tewari remarked that humans, in general, have a tendency to judge people without knowing them properly. She stressed that through practicing meditation, an individual can attain the purest form of knowledge that is, acceptance towards equality and empowerment for all. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfApprising about tourism in Japan, Tewari shared that Japan is witnessing a historic surge in tourist arrivals. As a marketing strategy, the country is not only promoting the heritage sites or tourist destinations but have well marketed their positive culture, leading to an increase in the number of tourists. She emphasized that every Japanese citizen is imbibed with the values of being kind and helpful towards every human being, which makes the country one of the most tourist-friendly nations. She called upon the budding professionals of the tourism sector in India to create a helpful ecosystem and safe environment to increase the footfall of international tourists. She opined that communication is one of the key aspects of tourism and to succeed, practicing the ancient maxim ‘Atithi Devo Bhava’ is a must.The lecture was attended by hundreds of students of Amity Institute of Travel and Tourism.Nupur Tewari is an Indian from West Bengal who is staying in Japan for last fourteen years. Her latest endeavor is to organize India’s first talk show on TV by sharing the stories of rural Indians.last_img read more

DRI seizes gold worth Rs 44 crore seven arrested

first_imgKolkata: The Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) has seized 12.5 kg of gold valued at Rs 4.4 crore in the metropolis and Siliguri and arrested seven persons under the Customs Act, officials said on Saturday. In a drive against gold smuggling, the DRI booked two cases in Kolkata and Siliguri and seized 12.5 kg of gold valued at approximately Rs 4.44 crore, a statement issued by the agency said. In the first case in Kolkata, three persons namely Sujit Rakshit, Sanjib Rakshit and Milan Swarnakar were arrested after intercepting them on VIP Road here on Friday and around 6.5 kg of gold was found concealed in waist belts worn by them. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata During interrogation, they admitted that the gold was smuggled in from the Bangladesh border and meant to be delivered to a person in Kolkata. In second case, DRI officers in Siliguri booked four persons including a lady after intercepting them at New Jalpaiguri railway station on Friday, the statement added. During interrogation, they said their sole purpose was to offer the gold at Kamakhya temple in Guwahati. However, 36 pieces of gold of foreign origin weighing six kg were seized. With the present seizure, in the current financial year 62 kg of gold had already been seized by the DRI, the statement added.last_img read more

Prosenjit to produce web films

first_imgActor Prosenjit Chatterjee is set to produce food-themed films for the digital media, which will be released during Durga Puja. The films, having different story lines, have been titled Filter Coffee Liquor Cha, Daab Chingri and Dawat E Lucknow, Chatterjee said. On the reason behind choosing food-themed films, Chatterjee said, “We Bengalis are stereotyped as gastronomes. But somehow we didnt have enough of food films in Bengali.” All the three films will be uploaded on a premier digital entertainment platform during Durga Puja to enable people to “get a virtual taste of different varieties of food during the festivities.” Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe films will also be a visual delight for the audience, he said. Chatterjee turned to full scale film production in recent times after about four decades of acting. Filter Coffee Liquor Cha is a romcom with a story line about how a Tamil boy and Bengali girl come together, a spokesperson of Chatterjee’s production house said. The cast of filmmaker Debarati Gupta’s film, includes popular actress Priyanka Sarkar and pop icon Usha Uthup among others. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe second cuisine-themed film Daab Chingri (a delicious prawn preparation with green coconut) is a family drama about an old age home where the inmates crave for home cooked food, which they feel, will bring back the lost charm of Bengali cuisine of yesteryears. Veteran actress Sandhya Roy is staging a comeback in the film as the pivotal character, along with senior actor Paran Bandhopadhyay. The film is directed by Sudeep Das. The third in the series is Dawat E Lucknow, a film on Bengalis love for Lucknow cuisine. The story revolves round the food and reuniting with family after 50 years. The film, directed by Aditi Roy, has Soumitra Chatterjee and Suhasini Mulay among the cast. Mentioning that Dawat E Lucknow shoot is taking place in different corners of Lucknow, he said, “After watching the film, you will feel like visiting the heritage city.”last_img read more

Cavs will beat Boston despite getting blown out in Game 1

first_imgCavs will beat Boston despite getting blown out in Game 1The Cavs got drilled by the Celtics in Game 1 in Boston, and following the game LeBron James said he wasn’t overly concerned about it. Colin thinks the game just meant more to the young Celtics, many of whom who grew up idolizing LeBron, and it showed with an emotional performance before a hyped up home crowd.James has been through enough playoff battles to look at the bigger picture of the series without panicking over a bad Game 1 loss. He’s been here before. He still predicts the Cavs will win the series. LeBron to the Rockets would be the best scenario for the NBA The Rockets will take on the Warriors in Game 1 of the Western Conference Finals tonight, and Colin thinks a Houston series loss would make LeBron to the Rockets a real possibility.He thinks LeBron would be attracted to the Rockets because he could be the piece that helps them finally beat the Warriors and help them win a title. It would be the third franchise LeBron has led to a title, which would help him in his career comparison to Michael Jordan in the never-ending G.O.A.T. debate. It would also help create a counter balance to the Warriors domination in the West, and allow the Celtics and Sixers to grow as rivals in the East. Also:– Why LaMar Jackson could be Tebow 2.0Guests:Chris Broussard – FS1 NBA Analyst is in-studio talking Cavs/Celts Game 1; why the Celtics are Brad Stevens’ team, not Kyrie’s; and why LeBron to Philly makes the most sense.Rob Parker – FS1 Analyst is in-studio talking Cavs/Celtics; if LeBron should be worried; and why LeBron will never surpass Michael Jordan.Dahntay Jones – NBA World Champion with the Cavs talks Cleveland/Boston Game 1; and how LeBron will bounce back.last_img read more

Video Gaming Craze

first_imgApril 1, 2006 Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global 3 min read Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. As poker mania sweeps across the country, mutterings of Two Fat Ladies and Big Slick buzz around felt-topped kitchen tables. But as friends and acquaintances battle for tournament supremacy, pay attention, because the players in the loser’s lounge often gather around a video-game console. When the dust finally settles around poker hysteria, video games are in the perfect position to fill the gaming void.Jason Della Rocca, executive director for the International Game Developers Association, says the gaming industry has already arrived. “It’s this neverending tidal wave,” says Della Rocca. “It just keeps collecting mass.”According to the Entertainment Software Association, 50 percent of all Americans-and 75 percent of heads of households-play video games. The games have similarities to poker that are helping them reach the mainstream, in the same way poker has: Both video games and poker are blind to gender, age, social environment and physical abilities. Both boast professionals and have a media following. Just as poker birthed heaps of accessory opportunities for entrepreneurs, so have video games-perhaps more so. The video-game market continues to innovate with products like exergames, which encourage physical activity, and Nintendo’s new physically responsive controller (for example, gamers playing a fishing game use the controller as if they were actually casting a reel). And neither is a fad-the average gamer has been playing for 12 years, according to the ESA. While poker has been the recent beneficiary of widespread attention, it’s been a part of American folklore since Wild Bill Hickok was shot in 1876 holding a dead man’s hand.Della Rocca notes that many gamers are beginning to recognize that not just teenagers and young men, but their moms, wives and girlfriends are interested in games. “Those who are not really part of the gamer culture are starting to wake up to this,” he says.As nongamers begin paying attention to the industry, entrepreneurs can benefit by pushing in their chips now with opportunities in service, development, accessories and more. Entrepreneurial niches exist in advergames, mobile games and “serious” games, where simulation or learning is the goal. In addition to the much-anticipated arrival of Microsoft’s Xbox 360 last year, this year marks the rollout of Sony’s Playstation 3 and Nintendo’s Revolution. Della Rocca says the marketing and promotion dollars invested in these launches should definitely attract even more mainstream attention to video games. The wave is only getting bigger, so don’t wait until the River to jump in. This story appears in the April 2006 issue of Entrepreneur. Subscribe » Register Now »last_img read more

Selling Computers and Accessories on eBay

first_img Note: This article was excerpted from How to Sell Computers and Accessories on eBay, which is available from and computer accessories are some of the best-selling and most reliably profitable items on eBay. Thousands of people visit eBay every day to browse and shop for new PCs, printers, networking components, cables, monitors and many other computer-related items. Many savvy eBay sellers have already recognized and capitalized on eBay’s large and hungry market for everything computer related. With some research, foresight and careful planning, you can join their ranks.Though selling on eBay is a great way to earn money, it is not a get-rich-quick miracle. Care must be taken when conducting all your transactions and dealing with bidders. eBay’s feedback system is a double-edged sword. It will, at once, boast to the world how great a seller you are, while revealing to the world exactly where you are lagging behind. It takes a lot of work to make and keep buyers happy. If you’ve ever had a job that deals directly with the public, then you know this already. If you do not have the time or interest to devote to taking care of the details of doing business, such as getting packages to the shipping store on time in the middle of a snowstorm, or answering buyer e-mails after a long day of crunching numbers in your cubicle, then selling on eBay is not for you. Your feedback score will suffer, and soon buyers will shy away from your listings. However, if you’re ready and excited for the possibilities eBay presents, then you will have a rewarding and profitable experience.PowerSelling vs. Selling as a HobbyThe first step in selling on eBay is to decide your commitment level to this endeavor. There are two levels of commitment when discussing selling on eBay: hobby seller and PowerSeller. The hobby seller sells casually for extra cash when she finds time in her schedule. The PowerSeller has made selling online her career. The tips found in How to Sell Computers and Accessories on eBay will help both the hobby seller and PowerSeller become more successful, but the initial planning for these two commitment levels is decidedly different. The differences are discussed throughout the book, but for now just think carefully about whether you want to depend on selling computers on eBay as your only income, or if you’d like for it to supplement what you’re already earning elsewhere.Both hobby selling and PowerSelling can be fun, exciting and lucrative. If you’re not sure where to begin, plan to start small and grow over time. It’s much easier to start selling as a hobby to supplement your job than it is to start selling full time and then grovel for your job back if you decide this career isn’t for you.Assessing the CompetitionOf all the possible items to sell, selling computers is a smart choice. Technology is growing and evolving at such a rapid rate that there is near constant demand for more products. However, because these items are immensely popular with bidders, they are also immensely popular with eBay sellers, which means you’ll find plenty of competition in this category. Be aware that if you plan to reach the coveted PowerSeller status, you have your work cut out for you. Many PowerSellers are busy not only keeping a careful eye on their own businesses, but they also have learned to keep a strict eye on their competition-you.The bright side of having a lot of competition is that it provides a lot of opportunities for market research. This is where you begin your journey to becoming a successful eBay computer seller. Know your competition, both on eBay and off, including brick-and-mortar retailers like Best Buy, Wal-Mart and Apple, online stores and local computer shops. What are their strengths? More importantly, what are their weaknesses? If your competition sells on eBay, find and study their product listings. Are they attractive, complete, and clear? Read their customer feedback comments. Are buyers complaining about slow shipping, inaccurate descriptions, or poor customer service? Find these faults, and make it your goal to provide better service in these areas.You’ll find when researching your competition that buyers have countless options for where to buy their computers and computer accessories. It is often impossible to compete with all these sellers on price alone. There are sure to be larger sellers out there who can buy in such large bulk quantities that their per-item price drops significantly. One day, you will be able to do the same, but when you’re starting out, you should focus on competing on customer service, attractive and com¬plete eBay listings, and reliable shipping. You will soon build a feedback score that will attract the buyers you need to begin buying and selling items on par with the PowerSellers. Before you know it, you’ll be a PowerSeller yourself.The Tech-Trickle-DownThe computer market is still in its infancy. New, or first-generation, technology is being introduced nearly every day. Companies like Apple, Intel, and Sony are redefining the “cutting-edge” with seemingly every press conference they hold. This rapid development rate of new technologies and the premium price on those new technologies create a trickle-down effect. Large companies and power users buy the first-generation technology as soon as it becomes available to the public. This technology could be anything from new CPUs to faster hard drives to biometric scanners. Upon introduction, these new items fetch too high a price for the average user to buy and therefore comprise a limited segment of the market. But, inevitably, new technology is introduced that improves upon, and replaces, the previously latest and greatest technology, making it the new second generation. This second-generation equipment is now cheaper and more accessible to the average user. So the number of units sold actually increases to fill the large demand created by buyers who waited for the price to come down. Then, when new technologies are again introduced, this now third generation equipment is moved down the chain to users who don’t mind, or are oblivious to, old hardware. Think of third-generation hardware as the old ThinkPad sitting on your mother’s desk, or grandpop’s Apple IIe.You have an opportunity to sell at every step in the tech¬nology trickle-down process. Pre-order new technology before launch to capitalize on the high, post-launch demand. Watch the hot technology companies to find out when they are set to launch a new product and buy up the inventories of retailers selling off soon-to-be second-generation equipment to make room for the new first generation. Finally, sell off third-generation items at high-volume and rock-bottom prices to turn a profit. Seek new markets for old hardware, such as collectors, hobbyists, and young businesses.Meet a PowerSellerJohn Kreutzer is a Mac-fanatic. His history of using, fixing and teaching Apple computers dates back to their very first models in the late 1970s. In 2001, John decided to capitalize on his expertise by starting a business buying and selling his favorite computers. But you won’t find only computers in his eBay store, Jack’s Mack Shop. You’ll also find the Macintosh operating system, Apple’s various applications, and all sorts of Apple computer peripherals.The items he sells range from brand new to over 25 years old. John enjoys finding his Macs new homes with collectors, bargain hunters and other Mac-fanatics. One of the parts of the business that he enjoys most, John says, is working with his customers to help them find the right products and solve any problems that emerge. Owning the business allows John to work with the products and systems that he finds exciting.John’s customers respond well to his enthusiasm for his products. They have awarded him a 99.6 percent positive feedback rating on more than 3,800 transactions. He is credited with being a fast shipper, very helpful during transactions, and having a profound grasp of all Apple and Apple-related products. John is a good example of creating a successful business out of doing what you love.Learn more about selling computers on eBay from the book How to Sell Computers and Accessories on eBay from Register Now » Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global 7 min read January 9, 2007 Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box.last_img read more